" Sar Bachan OR Vachan "
Shivdayāl Singh Seth (called "Swami or Soami Ji Maharaj" by followers and devotees) was a Satguru of Sant Mat and Radhasoami tradition. At the age of five, Shivdayāl Singh was sent to school where he learnt Hindi, Urdu, Persian and Gurumukhi. He also acquired a working knowledge of Arabic and Sanskrit. The recitation of the Sikh scriptures was a regular practice in his family. His father, Sardār Dilwali Singh Seth was a Sahejdhari Khatri and Nanak Panthi. His family including his father, mother, mother-in-law, sister and his wife Nārāini Devi (called "Rādhāji" by followers and devotees) were followers of Param Sant Tulsi Sahib of Hathras, India. Sant Tulsi initiated him at the age of six. His spiritual cravings, however, were so intense that worldly attainments no longer attracted him and he gave up even this lucrative job. He returned home for devoting his entire time to religious pursuits.
After the death of Sant Tulsi, Shivdayāl practiced Surat Shabd Yoga for 15 years in almost total seclusion in a room within a room. He started holding satsang publicly on Vasant Panchami (a spring festival) in 1861, and continued for 17 years.
Shivdayāl originally referred to the Supreme Being with the names "Sat Nām" (True Name) and "Anāmi" (Nameless). The term Rādhā Swāmi ("Rādhā"="Soul" and "Swāmi"="Lord", hence "Lord of the Soul") was used after Salig Rām became a disciple. The yoga system taught by Shivdayāl is known as Surat Shabd Yoga. He used to insist that anyone who chose to follow him must give up non-vegetarian food, abstain from alcohol and intoxicants, lead a high moral life and engage in over two hours of shabd yoga (sound-current yoga) meditation per day.
Shiv Dayal Singh's wife, Narayani Devi (called Radhaji), Rai Saligram (called Huzur Maharaj), Sanmukh Das, Gharib Das, Partap Singh (Shiv Dayal's younger brother) and Baba Jaimal Singh were some of his prominent followers around whom individual satsang groups formed. This splintering off, led to the propagation of Radhasoami teachings to a wider audience, although with slightly varied interpretations.The Radha Soami Satsang Beas was founded by Shiv Dayal Singh's disciple Jaimal Singh. Radhasoami (Radha Swami) is a spiritual movement that originated in 19th century India, and is considered by adherents as a true way to attain God realization. The Radhasoami faith is also referred to as Sant Mat, the "Path of the Sants." Radhasoami emphasizes the use of listening to inner sound accessed by (mantra/simran), combined with personal loyalty to a given living Master, for devotees to attain desired states of spiritual advancement.